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Posts Tagged ‘Salmonella’

Spring: Egg Safety Time

Spring: A good time to remind you about egg safety

By Diane Wright Hirsch, MPH

Senior Extension Educator/Food Safety



Photo: Iowa Extension

Spring is here (at least officially) and it is always a good time to remind ourselves of how to safely handle eggs. Whether you are hard-boiling them for an Easter or Passover celebration, or looking forward to serving deviled eggs at your family picnic, it is important to follow food safety guidelines.

It wasn’t all that long ago that we thought that uncracked eggs were essentially sterile (inside the egg). But, numerous foodborne disease outbreaks that were sourced back to eggs in the 1970s and 1980s sounded an alarm bell. Maybe the problem was actually Salmonella (a pathogen commonly associated with eggs) IN the egg, not only on the surface of the eggshell. The implications of this new thinking would have a great impact on how eggs are handled by the foodservice industry. If the Salmonella was in the egg, then simply cleaning the shell surface would not reduce the risk of illness from egg-containing menu items such as eggnog, soft-boiled eggs, some custards and other raw or partially cooked egg-containing foods.

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a common illness causing strain of this pathogen. It is often associated with eggs. From 1998-2008, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded that 60.3% of all SE outbreaks were traced to eggs as the source.

How does SE get into the egg?

There are potentially two ways for this pathogen to get into an egg. First, since Salmonella is an intestinal pathogen, chicken manure can be one source of the problem. Chicken pass eggs through the vent—the same way they poop out waste. Therefore, it is easy for chicken manure to some in contact with the surface of an egg. This can happen as the egg is laid, or if the egg comes into contact with the manure after it is laid, or rodent feces in the barn, or from other contaminated places in the farm environment.

Fresh shell eggs are protected by the “bloom” or “cuticle”, a gelatinous covering that dries after the egg is laid and helps to seal the pores in the egg shell. This is a natural covering that keeps moisture in and helps to keep bacteria out. Some customers may ask for unwashed eggs, thinking that this will mean a safer egg.

Commercially, eggs are often washed and/or sanitized prior to sale. Careful handling and refrigeration of eggs after washing helps to insure against cross contamination and the risk of pathogen growth.

A bigger problem, that is less amenable to environmental controls occurs when a hen’s ovaries for infected with SE. An infected chicken may look completely healthy—and so will her eggs.

Rules and regulations

A Federal Egg Safety rule went into effect in July 2010. Many provisions of the rule were aimed at reducing the risk for Salmonella infected birds. They also addressed environmental controls to minimize the pathogen in the hen house. Each operation must register with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have a written SE Prevention Plan.

Some provisions of the rule address the monitoring and reduction of SE during the raising of pullets, or young hens. Other provisions address biosecurity, control of rodents and other pests, environmental sampling and testing, cleaning and disinfection of the hen house, egg sampling and testing, and refrigeration. Eggs must be held and transported at or below 45°F beginning 36 hours after laying.

The rule also exempts any operation with fewer than 3,000 laying hens and any farmer who sells all of his/her eggs directly to the consumer. These operations do not need to register with FDA, develop a prevention plan or keep records of cleaning or sanitizing operations.

No matter where you buy your eggs—from the farm or the supermarket, make sure that the eggs are refrigerated, clean and uncracked when you buy them. Be sure to refrigerate the eggs quickly after purchase. And, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly.

Safe handling of eggs

It is important to handle eggs safely to prevent illness.

When buying eggs, buy shell eggs only when sold from a refrigerator or refrigerated case. In Connecticut supermarkets, eggs must be held at temperatures no lower than 45°F. Open the carton, and make sure that the eggs are clean and the shells are not cracked.

Check “sell-buy” dates so that you are getting the freshest eggs. Sell-by dates are an indication to store owners when to pull the product from the shelves. This does not mean that the food is no longer safe to be consumed. Eggs are safe to eat when stored properly up to 4-5 weeks after the sell by date.

If you choose to buy pasteurized eggs or an egg substitute product (usually found in a cardboard carton) made from egg whites, be sure that the product is sold from a refrigerated or freezer case. Check “sell-buy” dates for the freshest product.

Storing eggs

Store eggs in the original carton, and refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase. Be sure that the temperature in your refrigerator is 40°F or below. Eggs are washed and sanitized before they are packed. Eggs should not be washed before storage because you may remove the natural coating on the shell that protects the egg.

When handling or preparing eggs

When preparing eggs, keep in mind that there is always a chance that they could be contaminated with bacteria. Wash your hands and all utensils, counters and cutting boards with hot water and soap before and after preparing eggs. Do not prepare raw eggs near ready-­to-eat foods like salads, cooked meat or fish, bread, rolls or fresh fruit.

  • Use only clean, unbroken eggs. Discard dirty or broken eggs.
  • Cold temperatures will reduce the chance that bacteria will multiply, so keep shell eggs, broken-out eggs or egg mixtures refrigerated before and after cooking.
  • Do not leave eggs in any form at room temperature for more than two hours including prepa­ration time and serving.
  • For picnics or outdoor parties, pack egg dishes with ice or a freezer gel pack in an insulated cooler or bag.
  • To prevent the contamination of other foods with the bacteria found in raw eggs, wash your hands, utensils, equipment and work areas with hot, soapy water before and after using eggs or making egg-containing foods to prevent cross-contamination.
  • To keep prepared egg dishes safe, refrigerate leftovers in shallow con­tainers immediately after serving so that they will cool quickly. Use left­overs within two days.

Cooking eggs

When eggs are fully cooked, bacteria, such as Salmonella, will be killed. When you cook eggs until the yolk and white are firm, you can be sure that they are safe. When eggs are the ingredients in fully cooked baked goods, you may also be sure that the bacteria have been killed. However, when eggs are ingredients in casser­oles, quiches, sauces or custards, it is best to use a thermometer to make sure that the food is cooked to at least 160°F.

If you like to eat eggs that are not cooked to this high temperature or if you are serving folks with compromised immune systems, you might want to consider using pasteurized egg products, often found in the dairy section or egg section of your market in a carton similar to a milk carton.

Hardboiled egg safety

Once eggs are cooked, they need to be refrigerated immediately if they are not to be eaten. For some reason, people thing that this is not true of hardboiled eggs…that somehow the shell will protect them from contamination and bacterial growth. Safe cooking and handling of hardboiled eggs includes the following steps:

  • Cook hard boiled eggs thoroughly. Cool quickly under cold running water or ice water, then refrigerate.
  • Keep in mind that once an egg is hard-cooked, the protective coating is washed away. This leaves open pores – and an entry point for bacteria.
  • Keep hard-cooked eggs in the refrigerator until ready to serve. If you are decorating your hard cooked eggs or using them for holiday activities, they should not be out of refrigeration for more than a total of 2 hours. That includes all time spent at room temperature once the egg is cooked—whether cooling, decorating, or using as a centerpiece. If hard cooked eggs are out of refrigeration for more than 2 hours (or even less time if it is over 70° F), then they must be thrown out.
  • Eat hard cooked eggs within 5 days or so.

For more information about egg safety, go to the US Food and Drug Administration web site at, the US Department of Agriculture web site at, or contact the Home and Garden Education Center at or 1-877-486-627.

Oh Nuts!

By Diane Wright Hirsch, MPH

Senior Extension Educator/Food Safety

FDA nutsEggs, chicken, lettuce, sprouts, and now pistachios. Some readers may think that this association of pistachios with a Salmonellosis outbreak is unusual if not rare. Well, though not likely to be defined as “common,” in recent years a number of outbreaks have been traced to nuts and nut products.

Currently, there is an ongoing outbreak associated with pistachios, with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issuing a recall notice on March 10. The brand of the pistachios was the Wonderful brand, but these were also distributed under the Paramount Farms and Trader Joe’s brands, and others. A list of all lot numbers that have been recalled can be found on the FDA web site ( At this point, eleven people from nine states have been identified as infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Montevideo, including one person in Connecticut. Two ill people have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Because the shelf life for these products is long, some may still be on consumer shelves, so be sure to check your pantry for the recalled lot numbers.

Salmonella is a foodborne illness causing bacteria that is estimated to cause more than one million foodborne illnesses in the United States, with 19,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness usually lasts four to seven days, and most persons recover without treatment. However, in some persons, particularly those with compromised immune systems, the elderly and the very young, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized.

There are a many strains or serotypes of the bacteria: S. Montevideo has caused this outbreak. You may be more familiar with S. Enteriditis. Some strains may be more virulent than others, causing more severe symptoms and side effects.

But why pistachios?

Historically, it was thought that nuts were likely too low in moisture to support the growth of foodborne illness causing bacteria. However, researchers have shown now that Salmonella can live on dry products and in peanut butter for as long as six months.

There have been 11 outbreaks from nuts and nut products (butters, spreads, “cheese”) since 2010, affecting 169 people. There were 25 recalls of contaminated nut products just in 2015. Recalls are often conducted as a result of a testing program—while a foodborne pathogen may show up during testing, it may not result in widespread illness.

And of course, there was the Peanut Corporation of America’s outbreak that resulted in the recall of more than 3,900 products from more than 200 companies, all containing peanut butter or peanut paste from PCA. This outbreak was due to a company that was negligent in its sanitation programs and knowingly shipped contaminated products: four people have been sentenced to prison terms in this case, including the owners of the company, the Parnell brothers.

But most cases are not the result of gross mismanagement and fraud. Nuts like any other product grown in orchards and fields can be contaminated by bird poop or irrigation water or during harvest, especially if the nuts come into contact with the ground. This is one reason, after several outbreaks traced back to almonds, in 2007, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) passed a rule that requires all handlers of almonds to use a process, such as pasteurization, that will significantly reduce the presence of Salmonella.

In addition, during processing, nuts may be soaked in water to soften shells—if the shells are contaminated, this process could spread the bacteria. And, like any other processed food, a good sanitation program is essential. Otherwise a processor runs the risk of cross-contaminating clean product with dirty surfaces or utensils. Or, Listeria can take up residence in the processing environment, risking the contamination of nuts after they are cooked, roasted, or pasteurized.

So, is this something to be concerned about? Well the good news is no, you do not need to be stressed out over your favorite peanut butter. However, if you or a family member is elderly, very young or has an immune system compromised by chronic illness, medications or other condition, then maybe you should steer clear of raw nuts or raw nut butters.

The FDA is presently considering conducting a risk assessment for salmonella in tree nuts (almonds, cashews, macadamia nuts, pistachios, walnuts, etc.) as a result of increasing numbers of recalls and outbreaks. The results of this risk assessment may lead to additional regulations, rules, or guidance documents focused on the nut industry.

Recently, the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) rules were finalized. This, too, will increase jurisdiction of the FDA over both growers and processors of nuts and nut products. The Produce Safety Rule will address what goes on in the field; the Prevention and Controls Rule will impact processing operations. Attention is drawn to safer irrigation methods, worker health and hygiene (important during harvest), sanitation in the field and in the packinghouse. Regular inspections of farms and processing plants will be part of the new regulations.

If you grow nut trees at home, keep these points in mind:

  • Minimize contact with ground during harvest. Consider covering the ground with a CLEAN tarp or sheet to catch the nuts.
  • Handle harvested nuts with clean hands.
  • Always wash surfaces that come into contact with harvested nuts—counters, table tops, etc.
  • When opening raw nuts, be sure to use clean hands and utensils.
  • Dry/cure nuts completely before storage—again using clean equipment.
  • Store nuts in a clean container. Freezing or refrigerating will further reduce the risk of bacterial growth.

For more information on growing and the safe handling of nuts, contact the Home and Garden Education Center at or 1-877-486-6271.

Safe Food Handling from Farm to Table

Written by Patsy Evans for Naturally@UConn and originally posted on October 14, 2014

Screen Shot 2014-10-20 at 3.38.24 PMHearing the word ‘outbreak’ makes many people anxious. E. coliO157:H7, spinach, 2006. Salmonella, peanut butter, 2009. Listeria, cantaloupe, 2011. Diane Hirsch, UConn Extension educator for food safety, easily lists previous food-borne pathogen outbreaks. But, fear does not paralyze her.

Instead, she works in classrooms and on farms to make sure that locally produced food, which ends up on tables in New England, is as safe as possible. Her mission: “safe food handling from farm to table.” Her audience includes growers who put produce in boxes on their farms, commercial artisanal cheese makers and home cooks who preserve food in their kitchens.

With the help of over $82,000 in USDA grants, Hirsch trains farmers to follow Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and processors to develop food safety plans. She labors to see farm products that are, according to USDA, “produced, packed, handled, and stored in the safest manner possible to minimize risks of microbial food safety hazards.”

Because of past outbreaks, grocery store chains that buy food from farmers are putting more pressure on them to follow food safety guidelines and submit to voluntary audits. Hirsch estimates that 12 to 14 Connecticut farmers are currently GAP audited. She wants her training programs and farm visits to increase that number by “helping people do what they need to do” in reducing the possibility of contamination and preparing for audits.

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