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Heart Healthy Cooking Oils

food cooking in a skillet over the fireThis article will review the health and cooking properties of oils available in markets.

With so many cooking oils to choose from, it can be confusing which ones are heart-healthy and which ones are not. Cooking oils include plant, animal or synthetic fats used in frying, baking and other types of cooking. Oils are also used as ingredients in commercially prepared foods, and condiments, such as salad dressings and dips. Although cooking oils are typically liquid, some that contain saturated fat such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid at room temperature.

Health and Nutrition

The Food and Drug Administration recommends that 30% or less of calories from the foods you eat daily should be from fat and fewer than 7% from saturated fat. Saturated fat is found in animal and dairy products as well as the tropical oils (coconut, palm and palm kernel oil). The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and World Heart Foundation have recommended that saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Olive and canola oils are good sources of monounsaturated fats while soybean and sunflower oils are rich in polyunsaturated fat. Oils high in unsaturated fats may help to lower ”bad” Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and may raise “good” High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

Omega- 3 and Omega- 6 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 and Omega-6 are essential fatty acids – we cannot make them on our own and must get them from the foods we eat.  Both are polyunsaturated fatty acids that differ from each other in their chemical structure. In modern diets, there are few sources of Omega -3 fatty acids, mainly the fat of cold water fish such as salmon and sardines. Vegetarian sources such as walnuts and flaxseeds contain a precursor of Omega-3 that the body must convert to a useable form. Keep in mind that Omega-3 fats from marine sources, such as fish and shellfish have much more powerful health benefits than Omega-3 fats from plant sources. By contrast, there are abundant sources of Omega-6 fatty acids in our diets. They are found in seeds and nuts and the oils extracted from them. Refined vegetable oils, such as soy oil, are used in most of the snack foods, cookies, crackers and sweets in the American diet as well as in fast food. Most Americans get far too much Omega-6 and not enough Omega-3 so it is recommended to eat more foods containing Omega-3 fatty acids.

Trans Fats

Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential and they do not promote good health.  Consumption of trans fats increases one’s risk of heart disease by raising levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of “good” HDL cholesterol.  Trans fats are artificially created by the process of hydrogenation that turns liquid oils into solid fats. Trans fat formed naturally is found in small amounts in some animal products, such as meat and dairy products. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration, took action to significantly reduce the use of partially hydrogenated oils.   Trans fats formed artificially during food processing are often found in commercial baked goods, crackers, and fried foods, as well as shortening and some margarines.  When the label of ingredients says “partially hydrogenated”, it’s probably likely to contain trans fats. The Nutrition Facts label lists trans fats per serving.

Cooking with Oil

Heating oil changes its characteristics so it is important to know the smoke point – the point at which an oil begins to break down structurally, producing unhealthful by-products such as free radicals. Oils that are healthy at room temperature can become unhealthy when heated above certain temperatures. When choosing a cooking oil, it is important to match the oil’s heat tolerance with the cooking method. Generally, the more refined the oil, the higher it’s smoke point.

High Smoke Point (Best for searing, browning and deep frying)

Oil % Mono %Poly % Saturated Notes
Almond 65 28 7 Has a distinctive nutty flavor; don’t use if allergic to nuts
Avocado 65 18 17 Has a sweet aroma
Hazelnut 82 11 7 Bold, strong flavor; don’t use if allergic to nuts
Palm 38 10 52 High in saturated fat; not recommended.
Sunflower

(high oleic)

82 9 9 Look for high oleic versions – higher in mono-unsaturated fat.
Rice Bran 47 33 20 Very clean flavored and palatable
Mustard 60 21 13 Palatable
Tea Seed 60 18 22 Good for frying and stir-frying
“Light”/refined Olive 73 11 14 The more refined the olive oil the better its all-purpose cooking use.  “Light” refers to color.

 

Medium – High Smoke Point (Best suited for baking, oven cooking or stir frying)

Oil %Mono %Poly %Saturated Notes
Canola 62 31 7 Contains good levels of Omega-3;good all-purpose oil
Grapeseed 17 73 10 High in Omega-6
Macadamia nut 84 3 13 Bold flavor, don’t use if allergic to nuts
Extra virgin olive 73 11 14 Good all –purpose oil
Peanut 48 34 18 Great for stir frying, don’t use if allergic to nuts

 

Medium Smoke Point (Best suited for light sautéing, sauces and low-heat baking)

Oil %Mono %Poly % Saturated Notes
Corn 25 62 13 High in Omega-6, high mono-unsaturated versions coming.
Hemp 15 75 10 Good source of Omega-3. Keep refrigerated
Pumpkin Seed 36 57 8 Contains Omega-3
Sesame 41 44 15 Rich nutty flavor, keep refrigerated
Soybean 25 60 15 High in Omega-6
Walnut 23 63 9 Good source of Omega- 3
Coconut 6 2 92 High in saturated fat; use in moderation.

 

No – Heat Oils (Best used for dressings, dips or marinades)

Oil %Mono %Poly %Saturated Notes
Flaxseed

(Linseed oil)

21 68 11 Excellent source of alpha-linoleic acid, a form of Omega -3
Wheat germ 65 18 17 Rich in Omega-6. Keep refrigerated.

Storage/Shelf Life

Different oils stay fresh for different amounts of time, but you must store them all carefully. They should be tightly covered and stored in the dark away from heat. The less access to air, the fresher they will stay. Refrigeration benefits most oils.  If unopened, peanut oil, corn oil, and other vegetable oils will keep for at least a year. Once opened, they are good for 4-6 months. Olive oil will keep for about 6 months in a cool, dark pantry but up to a year in the refrigerator.  Walnut oil and sesame oil are delicate and inclined to turn rancid. Keep in the refrigerator and they will stay fresh for 2-4 months. It is best to purchase smaller bottles of oil if not used extensively.

Proper Disposal of Used Cooking Oil

Proper disposal of used cooking oil is an important waste-management concern. A single gallon of oil can contaminate as much as 1 million gallons of water. Oils can congeal in pipes causing major blockages. Cooking oil should never be dumped in the kitchen sink or in the toilet bowl. The proper way to dispose of oil is to put it in a sealed, non-recyclable container and discard it with regular garbage.

 

Article by: Sherry Gray MPH, RD

Extension Educator, UConn EFNEP

Updated: 10/1/19

 

Sources:

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/factsheets/Trans_Fat.pdf

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/factsheets/Total_Fat.pdf

Wikipedia.org/wiki/cooking-oil

Health.clevelandclinic.org/2012/05/heart-healthy-cooking-oils-101/

www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-fats/

whatscookingamerica.net/information/cookingoiltypes.html

Expiration, Use-By and Sell-By dates: What do they really mean?

person's hands holding food and looking at expiration date for food in the grocery store
Photo: Aviano Air Base

Often people open up their refrigerators, cupboards and cabinets to find foods that are beyond their sell- buy and use- buy dates. While it is always better to be safe than sorry, the following guidelines and information should help to take the guesswork out of determining whether or not your food is safe to eat.

Dating is not required by US Federal law, with the exception of infant formula and baby foods which must be withdrawn by their expiration date.  For all other foods, except dairy products in some states, freshness dating is strictly voluntary on the part of manufacturers.  For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), dates may be voluntarily applied provided they are not misleading and labeled in a manner that is in compliance with FSIS regulations.  Also stores are not legally required to remove outdated products from their shelves.  In order to ensure you getting the freshest food, it is necessary to scrutinize packaging and purchase the items with the most recent date.  Although most markets are good about rotating their stock, some are not. If a store is properly stocked, the freshest items will be at the back of the shelf or underneath older items.

So what do these terms mean for consumers?

* Expiration Date:   If you have a product with an expired expiration date, throw it out.  While other dating terms are used as a basic guideline, this one is absolute.

*Best if Used-By and Use-By date:

“Use-By” or: Best if Used By” dates are a suggestion for when the food item will be at its best quality.  Food is generally safe if consumed past this date, but may have deteriorated in flavor, texture, or appearance.  “Use- By” dates are most often found on canned goods, dry goods, condiments, or other shelf stable items.  The Food and Drug Administration is supporting the food industry’s efforts to standardize the use of this on its packaged food labeling.

*Sell-By date:

Many fresh or prepared foods are labeled with a “Sell-By” date as a guide for how long the item should be displayed for sale before quality deteriorates.  Items are generally safe for consumption after this date, but may begin to lose flavor or eye appeal.  “Sell-By” dates are chosen with the assumption that the buyer may store or eat the item a few days after purchase.  To be sure your food is fresh and will keep at home, it is best not to buy items that are past their “ sell by” date.

*Guaranteed Fresh

This date is often used for perishable baked goods.  Beyond this date, freshness is no longer guaranteed, although it may still be edible.

*Pack date:

This is the date the item was packed, most often used on canned and boxed items.  It is usually in the form of a code and not easy to decipher.  It may be coded by month(M), day (D) and year (Y) such as YYMMDD or MMDDYY.  Or it may be coded using Julian numbers, where January 1 would be 001 and December 31 would be 365.   These time stamps are generally a reference to the date, time, and location of the manufacture and not be confused with expiration dates.  “Sell-By” or “ Best-By” may also be included on the can code.

So all of this assumes foods are stored at the right temperature.  Foods not refrigerated properly – whether at home or at the store – wont keep as long regardless of what the freshness date says.  So how long are foods good after the package date?  According to the US Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service:

  • Milk is good for about a week after the “sell by” date
  • Eggs can keep for three to five weeks beyond the “sell by” date
  • Fresh chicken, turkey and ground meats should be cooked or frozen within two days
  • Fresh beef, pork and lamb should be cooked or frozen within three to five days

Cooking or freezing extends the amount of time a food will keep.  Use your eyes and nose too, to determine if foods are fresh, regardless of the date on the package.

So here are some food storage hints and tips:

  • Once opened, many of the dates become obsolete since the contents now become perishable. It is advisable to use food as quickly as possible after opening them.
  • Be sure to refrigerate leftovers in a covered container (not a can) and use within 3 to 5 days.
  • Some canned foods (like condiments and pickled foods) will have a longer shelf life if refrigerated. Most condiments will have a warning to refrigerate after opening on the label.
  • When buying foods always check the expiration date. Choose the date farthest in the future for optimum shelf life.
  • Like the grocery, rotate your stock at home. Rather than trying to determine the codes on cans, use a marker to write the purchase date on cans and packaged goods.
  • Whatever the expiration date, do not open or use cans that are bugling or oozing from the seams, or those that are heavily dented.
  • Most baking mixes contain fats which will become rancid with time and leaveners that lose their potency. Check the dates.
  • The best storage temperature for canned foods is 65 degrees F. Higher storage temperatures can reduce shelf-life up to 50 percent.  Most canned goods can be stored up to 1 year under optimal temperatures.
  • Canned foods should never be frozen. The freezing expansion can split the seams of the can or break the glass.
  • Generally, foods canned in glass have a longer shelf-life, but they must be stored in the dark since light can accelerate some natural chemical reactions.
  • Look at cellophane, plastic and box packages at the store to be sure they have not been punctured or torn. Once the seal is penetrated, shelf-life of the contents is drastically shortened.
  • Bring food home quickly from the store and store it properly for maximum shelf life.
  • Trust your vision and smell- if it looks and/or smells bad throw it out.
  • A resource available for consumers online with questions about how to keep perishable foods is: The FoodKeeper App (https://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/foodkeeperapp/index.html)

 

Resources:

www.fsis.usda.gov

www.nrdc.org/food/expiration-dates.asp

www.urbanext.illinois.edu/thrifyliving/tl-foodfreshness.html

http://www.onthetable.net/freshness_dates.html

http://www.nutrition411.com/patient-education-materials/food-safety/

 

Article by: Sherry Gray, MPH, RD, Extension Educator, UConn EFNEP

Updated: September 30, 2019

Have your Soil Tested for Macro & Micro Nutrients

cup of soil being held in Soil Nutrient analysis lab at UConn

Send your soil sample in for testing now. Our standard nutrient analysis includes pH, macro- and micro nutrients, a lead scan and as long as we know what you are growing, the results will contain limestone and fertilizer recommendations. The cost is $12/sample. You are welcome to come to the lab with your ‘one cup of soil’ but most people are content to simply place their sample in a zippered bag and mail it in. For details on submitting a sample, go to UConn Soil and Nutrient Laboratory.