The National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) was formed along with the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) in 2002.
The mission of the NPDN is to enhance national agricultural security by quickly detecting and identifying introduced pests and pathogens.
This is accomplished through the creation of a nationwide network of diagnostic laboratories at land-grant universities (UConn in Connecticut) and state agriculture departments, training for diagnosticians and First Detectors, and the establishment of pro- cedures to be followed when a suspected exotic introduction is discovered.
Introduction of a damaging exotic pest or pathogen can be either acciden- tal (such as the Asian Longhorned Beetle [ALB] or the Emerald Ash Borer [EAB]) or intentional (such as an act
Who can be a First Detector? Anyone who spends time with plants and would like to learn how they can help protect them from exotic pests and pathogens. The group includes professionals that work with plants in areas such as re- search, extension, agriculture, forestry, landscaping and the green industry.
But professionals aren’t the only ones who can play an important role in the early detection of an introduced pest or pathogen that has the potential to cause significant and damaging impact. Gar- deners, hikers, campers and anyone who spends time enjoying the outdoors all make great First Detectors.
By becoming familiar with the common plant pests and problems in your area, you can learn to recognize some- thing unusual and follow the established protocol to have it identified and, if needed, acted upon.
The online training consists of six modules that can be completed one at a time at your convenience. Module topics include Mission of the NPDN, Monitoring for High Risk Pests, Diagnosing Plant Problems, Submitting Diagnostic Samples, Photography for Diagnosis and Disease & Pest Scenarios.
Each module is followed by a short quiz. Once all six are successfully completed, you will be a certified First Detector and can download your certificate.
The training includes information on what to do and who to contact if you come across an unusual pest, pathogen or plant. Certified First Detectors become part of a national network and may receive email communications including alerts about pests and pathogens that are a threat to plants in their area along with an electronic newsletter.
Tomato and potato growers and gardeners: Protect your crops NOW from late blight infection. The disease has been reported in Litchfield County, Connecticut on July 18, 2015. With moist weather conditions the pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, will sporulate prolifically and spread rapidly on wind currents. Fungicide products can be applied preventively to protect plants. Active ingredients to look for include chlorothalonil, maneb, mancozeb, and copper formulations. Organic growers can use copper formulations. Symptoms of late blight include large brown leaf lesions, dark brown stem lesions, and brown, bumpy and firm lesions on fruits. During humid or wet weather, white sporulation will be visible within the lesions. Infected plant parts or plants should be removed and disposed of. Bag and place in the trash or bury about a foot deep. More information and photos are available in the fact sheet at this website.
By Jude Boucher, UConn Extension Educator, Commercial Vegetable Crops
Recap of 2012 Outbreak in CT
During the week of June 20, 2012, a Prospect, CT homeowner brought late blight (LB) infected tomato plants to the CT Ag Experiment Station diagnostic center. The homeowner had purchased the plants from a local supermarket, but when contacted, the supermarket management did not provide the source of the infected plants. Since LB is not listed as a restricted pest in CT, the state has no authority to force a vendor to stop selling infected plants or to reveal where they purchased infected plants, so that a future epidemic might be avoided by cleaning up the problem at the source. We could only assume that there were plenty of gardens with infected tomato plants around Prospect.
Late blight lesions on tomato leaf. Photo by Joan Allen, UConn diagnostician.
I recommended that all organic farms begin to apply preventative applications of copper, and all conventional farms start their early blight fungicide program to stop low levels of LB spores. Late blight spread is usually favored by cool temperatures and frequent precipitation, and July was the warmest month on record and completely dry through most of the state for the first three weeks. However, LB can spread when relative humidity nears 100%.
On July 13, two organic farms reported outbreaks of LB in both the eastern and western portions of the state. It was recommended that these farmers destroy their infected field tomatoes and potatoes to help prevent further spread of the disease and to save high tunnel tomatoes at these sites from becoming infected. I also recommended that all conventional farms begin preventative applications of the stronger, mobile, late blight-specific fungicides on their tomato and potato crops. By late July many more organic farms that did not use copper reported LB outbreaks, and by late August most organic farms had infected tomatoes and potatoes. In early September with more rain and cooler temperatures, conventional farms that had not switched to the stronger LB fungicides began reporting crop losses. There were even a few farms using the stronger fungicides that reported finding LB, but as far as I know, the fungicides prevented extensive crop loss in all cases. Many growers’ crops survived the 2013 outbreak, but again at great expense. So what can you do to stop the disease in 2013?
What you need to know about late blight
Late blight lesions on tomato stem. Photo by Joan Allen, UConn diagnostician.
Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is a water mold that can cause complete loss of potato and tomato crops in as little as 7 to 10 days after infection. This disease caused extensive crop losses in Europe during the mid-1800s, including the Irish Potato Famine. It is closely related to Phytophthora blight (P. capsici), which is so destructive to solanaceous, cucurbit and leguminous plants, and infests soils on farms for decades, even in the absence of a host. Unlike Phytophthora blight, LB doesn’t form long-term resting spores (oospores) in our area, so it doesn’t overwinter in the soil. That’s the good news! However, there are places in the world, such as Scandinavia, Mexico and South America, where the two “sexual” mating types have crossed or “mated” to produce a LB strain that does produce oospores, and where late blight is an annual problem on infested farms. Cooperation between growers to help prevent LB outbreaks is crucial to prevent a scenario where both mating types occur in our region and become a permanent, annual problem. In short, the more years we have a state- or region-wide outbreak with our current strain(s) of LB, the higher the odds that the second mating type shows up and results in a sexual cross, oospores, and a permanent LB problem. Such a cross could also produce fungicide-resistant offspring.
The strain of LB that we have been experiencing in the northeast, spreads by producing sporangia (secondary spores), which are capable of moving 30 to 40 miles on the wind. However, Long Island Sound frequently acts as a barrier to protect CT farms from LB outbreaks on the island. So, typical spread of the disease may be more localized than what is indicated by the maximum range of spore flight, but may be influenced by large storm systems, such as Hurricane Irene or even prevailing wind direction.
Zoospores (that swim) are produced in the sporangia, and either the sporangia directly or the zoospores can penetrate the leaf surface and start the infection. Usually, a thin film of water is needed for the spores to penetrate the leaf cells, but as mentioned, even extreme humidity will provide enough water for infection to occur. The optimum temperature for infection is between 54 to 75 degrees, but during 1 to 2 days of extreme humidity, infection may take place at up to 86 degrees F. Cool August and September nights that produce heavy morning dews (i.e. 100% relative humidity) are perfect for LB infection.
Because spore deposition and leaf wetness time are limited in greenhouse and high tunnel conditions, tomato plants grown inside usually remain LB-free, unless there is a source of spores almost adjacent to the houses. However, due to high humidity in some tunnels and greenhouses, when infection does occur, it can cause rapid and extensive crop losses.
LB survives the winter on potato tubers or may arrive on infected tomato transplants in the spring (as it did in 2009). This disease organism requires living tissue, so tubers that have frozen near the soil surface will not allow the disease to survive. Growers should control volunteer potatoes that sprout from deep within the soil of the previous year’s potato patch or from cull plies to prevent the disease from surviving the winter. You should only plant certified disease-free potato seed stock. Never save your own seed stock from a previous year if LB was on the farm or use table stock for seed. LB will not survive in tomato seeds or on the dead residue of the previous tomato crop. If possible, always grow your own tomato transplants from seed to avoid LB problems in the greenhouse and field. Inspect all tomato transplants arriving on your farm for signs of LB, and reject, or bag and dispose of infected transplants.
Late blight lesions on tomato fruit. Photo by Joan Allen, UConn diagnostician.
Growers should inspect tomato and potato plantings weekly for signs of LB. Suspected incidences of LB infection should be confirmed by bringing a sample plant to a diagnostic lab at the CT Ag Experiment Station in New Haven or Windsor, or to the UConn lab in the Radcliff-Hicks Building in Storrs. If LB is confirmed, alert your local vegetable crops Extension Educator (yours truly) so that growers throughout the state and region can be alerted and respond to the LB threat. Tracking the outbreak back to the source of the first infected plants is also a crucial part of combating future outbreaks, so that we can help a grower clean up and eliminate the problem before they start an epidemic the following year too. All tomato and potato growers should call or access the UConn Vegetable IPM Pest Message (860-870-6954, http://ipm.uconn.edu) every Friday afternoon during the summer, to see if late blight has been found in CT and to catch up on current fungicide recommendations.
At the beginning of the outbreak, it is essential that the first few growers with infected plants destroy their crop to help prevent a full blown outbreak from occurring, starting with neighboring farms. Infected potato plantings can be plowed under, harrowed, flamed or burned down with a contact herbicide, such as diquat or paraquat. Trellised tomato plants should be cut at the base and at mid-trellis height to kill the plants and help remove the trellis twine. They should then be treated as described above. Spores are inactivated within hours when exposed to high levels of UV light, so plantings that are sporulating should be handled or tilled down on a sunny day to minimize the possibility of disease spread. Obviously, once several farms are involved in an outbreak, the need to destroy the crop diminishes, as it can be assumed that the spores are on the wind.
There are active LB resistant-tomato breeding programs at Cornell University and at some seed companies, but variety choices are still limited. ‘Mountain Magic’, ‘Plum Regal’, ‘Jasper’ (cherry) are recently listed resistant varieties, while other heirlooms such as ‘Mr. Stripy’ and ‘Striped German’ have held up well in recent outbreaks. For potatoes, some varieties have more tolerance, such as; ‘Elba’, ‘Kennebec’, ‘Allegany’, ‘Sebago’, ‘Rosa’, ‘Defender’, ‘Jacqueline Lee’ and ‘Ozette’.
Managing late blight with fungicides
Protectant fungicides are not mobile within the leaf or the vine and thus, often result in lower rates of coverage, and tend to be less effective than systemic or mobile fungicides registered for LB. Some of the protectant fungicides registered for late blight control on tomatoes and potatoes include; copper (i.e. Champ), chlorothalonil (i.e. Bravo), and mancozeb (i.e. Dithane). Protectant fungicides usually provide some degree of protection under light disease pressure (few spores in the air and weather conditions that do not favor LB infection).
Mobile fungicides (systemic and translaminar) result in better under leaf coverage and tend to be more effective against this disease. Some of the more effective products include; cyazofamid (i.e. Ranman), propamocarb (Previcur Flex), fluopicolide (i.e. Presidio), mandipropamid + difenoconazole (i.e. Revus Top), cymoxanil (i.e. Curzate), and cymoxanil + famoxadone (Tanos).
When designing your own fungicide program, you should be looking for products with short day-to-harvest (dh) restrictions so that you can harvest tomatoes as they ripen; a short re-entry interval (REI) so that you or your crew can work in the field when needed; and a product that can be applied several times during one season, so you don’t have to buy too many different fungicides. Because of long dh intervals, some products, such as Dithane and Previcur Flex will only be useful before tomato fruits color. Remember, that as part of your resistance management program with mobile fungicides you should always alternate between two different pesticide groups or families and mix each mobile fungicide with a protectant. The protectant fungicide will also provide control of other important diseases such as early blight and Septoria leaf spot. They should be applied on a 7 to 10 day interval. Here is a list of some of the LB products and important label considerations to help you design your spray schedule.
chlorothalonil (Bravo), 7dh, REI 12h, Group M5, should be limited to 50% of applications each season to prevent early blight resistance.
copper (Champ), 0dh, REI 24h, Group M1,
mancozeb (Dithane), 5dh, REI 24h, Group M3,
cyazofamid (Ranman), 0dh, REI 12h, Group 21, limit of 6 applications per season.
cymoxanil (Curzate), 3dh, REI 12h, Group 27, limit of 6 applications per season.
cymoxanil + famoxadone (Tanos), 3dh, REI 12h, Groups 27 & 11, limited to 50% of applications each season.
fluopicolide (Presidio), 2dh, REI 12h, Group 43, limit 3 to 4 applications per season, not registered for potatoes.
mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top), 1dh, REI 12h, Groups 3 & 40, limit of 4 to 5 applications per season.
propamocarb (Previcur Flex), 5dh, REI 12h, Group 28, limit of 6 applications per season
Much of the information in this article was consolidated from several LB fact sheets written by Meg McGrath and Tom Zitter at Cornell and Mary Hausbeck at Michigan State, as well as several other sources.
As much as I try to accomplish tasks in a timely manner, life just seems to get in the way and things occasionally get done later rather than sooner. So it is this year with starting my tomato seeds. Here it is April 16th and I have just planted the seeds in their cell packs this evening. They then went under the grow lights with a plastic dome placed over the cell packs to keep the moisture in. As long as one has a light source, starting most seeds inside is not a difficult task. Always use clean containers, fill them to the top with moistened soilless growing media and keep it moist but not saturated. Remove any plastic coverings once the seeds start to germinate and keep the light 2 to 3 inches above their leaves while the seedlings are young.
Many different tomato varieties to choose from!
I plant two tomato seeds in each cell of a 4-cell pack and will then thin to the strongest seedling. If the seeds are 2 or 3 years old, then 3 or 4 get planted in each cell. Tomato seeds last 3 to 4 years for me which is both good and bad. Hating to waste anything, I use up all the seeds from the varieties I have on hand before I order more seeds (unless the plants performed very poorly which was the case for a green cherry tomato I tried a couple of years ago). So I don’t get to try new varieties as quick as my heart desires, usually only 1 or 2 each year.
Two or 3 tomato seeds are started in each cell.
Some tomatoes I can’t live without and grow them every year. These include 3 cherry tomatoes – ‘Sungold’, ‘Sweet Million’ and ‘Yellow Jelly Bean’, all of which look and taste so sweet and summery in my salads, and my canning tomato, ‘Polish Linguisa’ which I make tomato and chili sauce from. These four I grow each year and they account for about 12 plants in total. So I have room in the garden for about eight or so more tomatoes and here is where the fun begins.
Sungold tomato picture from White Flower Farm
My 2013 selections include some I grew last year and have leftover seed for, and 3 new tomato varieties. First the repeats: ‘Djena Lee’s Golden Girl tomato came as a ‘Free Trial Offer’ from Totally Tomatoes (they lie, they have a plethora of peppers too!). I grew one plant last year and loved it so much that I am growing it again. It is an indeterminate heirloom grown by Djena Lee and given to the Reverend Morrow in 1929 who kept this variety going. For 10 consecutive years, it won first prize at the Chicago Fair and I can see (taste) why! It is an orangey-yellow fruit that starts maturing about 80 days after transplant. I love the tangy but sweet flavor and that it did well in my garden last year.
On the other extreme, a second heirloom, ‘Peron’, billed as the sprayless tomato because of its disease resistance, died on me somewhere around the middle of August – from which disease I am not positive. It was introduced in the 1950’s by some Gleckler seedsmen and was supposed to have 3 ½ inch globe shaped fruits, none of which I got to harvest. It is an open-pollinated variety ready in about 68 days from transplant. I will give it one more chance.
Late blight struck my plants again last year although it was towards the end of the season. ‘Yellow Jelly Bean’ was able to almost outgrow it with its vigorous, indeterminate habit and I was harvesting those yellow, oval tomatoes well into October. But I saw that Johnny’s Selected Seeds was offering ‘Defiant PHR F1’ which is supposed to have high resistance to late blight and moderate resistance to early blight along with 6 to 8 ounce globe-shaped fruit and I am giving it a try. ‘Defiant’ is a determinant hybrid that matures in about 70 days from transplant.
Another hybrid I am trying this year is ‘Ultimate Opener’. Every gardener is searching for that earliest ripening tomato (although they would have started them already if more diligent than me!) and according to Pinetree Seed catalog descriptions this tomato should ripen in 57 days from transplant. The medium-sized, 8 oz. tomatoes are produced on strong, disease resistant plants that reach about 6 feet in height.
Last, but not least, is a Polish heirloom from Russia called ‘Soldacki’. It is from Krakow but was brought to Cleveland around 1900. Pictures show lovely and flavorful, dark red, ribbed fruits and I can’t wait to sink my teeth into a sun-ripened fruit. Being indeterminate in nature, they will require staking or caging and fruit should mature in 75 to 80 days.
Soldacki tomato by Seed Savers
I’ll report at the end of the summer on garden successes and failures. If you have been thinking about starting tomatoes from seed, you still have time but get to it soon. Once you start shopping for tomato seed you will be amazed at the incredible selection you have to choose from. Go for it!